在一个多个世纪中，用于运输加压流体 - 液体或气体的技术 - 已经不断地从木头上发展到粘土，铅，然后铸铁和那currently, steel pipelines. Meet the latest industry disruptor: composite flexible pipe. This next generation of non-metallic pipe is a proven alternative for a fast-growing range of applications.
轻质和柔韧的加固热塑性管可以优化流线和管道网络的核心结构，经济地支持CO的运输2for storage, the movement of hydrogen, or the conversion of existing infrastructure to carry these gases,which will be critical in the energy transition and decarbonization of industry.
At Baker Hughes, we recently announced扩展我们的陆上灵活管道制造能力所以在这里，我们探索这些非金属陆上管道的七个超级大国：
This pipe is a very easy product to get into a ditch: you can lift it, you can bend it. If you are trying to do that with steel pipe, you need three or four side booms and a big bulldozer for starters. This意义重大of safety exposure, because steel has that rigidity and weight, so when you are working with anything made from steel, it’s an extra overhead to carry.
灵活性（或合规性）在管道服务时同样重要。不是所有土地，运营商需要铺设管道是整洁而紧凑的。您可能需要交叉各种地理危险，例如山体滑坡，泥浆和沼泽。这提出了钢管的大量风险，并克服它，传统上，运营商传统上依靠大量的额外设计努力，并增加了膨胀环（管道中基本大的U形弯曲）或快速断开连接的弱链路阀门。管道运营商始终努力避免溢油或天然气，甚至盐水，因此责任负担，运营商必须具有额外的灵活性进入其钢管系统。复合管道只是没有相同的水平risk because they are flexible and can easily incorporate bends and loops which would facilitate any ground movement – just using their natural compliance.
一世n the working environments for pipelines, there are high shock loads, heating and cooling cycles and pressure cycles, a material with high ductility will likely be more reliable than something that is rigid.
This superpower for flexible composite pipes is that the optical fibers can be embeddedin结构本身，因为它们与所用的加强材料兼容。O.PTICAL-FIRED MOTRINS是一种令人难以置信的通用工具，用于条件监测和完整性评估。标准电信-grade fiber is embedded within the structure with the other fibers and becomes an integral part of the pipe.
O.n a pipe running for 20 miles with embedded optical fiber, we can measure all sorts of things – such as distributed temperature – along that complete distance. For example, if there is a leak from the inside out, or from the outside in, the temperature difference will show up on the monitoring software. We can then investigate that specific location, without the need to dig up miles of pipe.
O.ne capability that is most interesting is the use of optical fibers for vibration monitoring. With an I/O box (input/output) at one end and a reflector at the other, we can interrogate the line signal backwards and forwards. When monitoring the fiber acoustically, vibrations will be detected if for example somebody’s digging in the vicinity. This means in advance of somebody digging a hole near and potentially ‘interacting’ with the pipe, the operator will get a warning. The value of that alarm capability for operators is obvious.
What is less obvious is that operators have a regulatory duty to positively confirm the condition of the pipeline, including that it is holding pressure, shows no signs of being degraded and is still fit for purpose. These on-board monitoring systems allow the operator to do these checks without having to inspect the line either internally, with an intelligent pig, or externally by walking along it. A step forward in the digitalization of operations.
复合柔性管带在这里带来一个非常简单的超级大器 - 它比钢管轻，它适合卷轴。
安装钢管管道涉及焊接，弯曲，侧臂和大量重型设备。复合柔性管安装需要更少。反向铲将打开沟渠，反向铲或少数人可以手动将管道抬到沟槽中，100s of meters of flexible can be laid without interruption for connectors or welding. The reduced number of joints also lowers the risk of a leak during hydrotesting operations.
一世n addition, the operational risk of wall thickness loss due to corrosion, one key fact或者钢铁-pipe failure, is non-existent in a non-metallic onshore pipeline.
The composite pipes are fully recyclable at the end of life and are as simple to replace or remove as they were to install. During installation there is at least 30% less land required for the right-of-way, when dealing with many fewer vehicle movements – this has an environmental benefit as well as improving the owner/operator’s return on investment. Of course, many fewer vehicles for transportation and installation also means lower emissions.
The project manager is responsible for the budget and their first question is, ‘How much am I spending upfront?’ With non-metallic pipes, the discussion moves from comparing equipment unit costs, which is what the industry normally focuses on, to look instead at total installed cost. When we take the cost of our pipe, the cost of installation and the cost of the operation, we can demonstrate that in most applications, this pipe is significantly – 20-30% and sometimes more – lower than the installed cost of the equivalent steel pipe.
When looking at OPEX, the operator can benefit from a hidden cost advantage: there is no need to inject chemicals into the pipes to prevent corrosion, which can be costly. Oxygen scavengers and wax build up are also not an issue, which eliminates regular intelligent pigging operation. Likewise, external corrosion – requiring a Cathodic Protection system installation and life-long maintenance – are not needed. A consideration of all those ‘traditional’ pipe maintenance itemsgreatly reducesthe operating costs of the pipeline over its life cycle.
Copphite管子是一个很好的例子the benefits achieved withadvanced配置和manufacturing. We work from a menu of components which can change out quickly. We use the same machinery and, in some cases, the same kind ofbase材料 - 复合纤维胶带和聚合物。一世f工况需要,我们可以substitute a high-temperature polymer or an impermeable polymer inside the pipe and leave everything else unchanged.
复合材料也是一个非常快速的制造过程 - 如果需要，可以在几天内生产一段柔性管。钢管接头可能需要从工厂提前几个月订购，以获得指定的等级，而我们可以在几天内建造各种产品，从同一基础原料中。